In the Name of Allah
In the Name of Allah
If you ask someone over, you invite the person to your house or apartment:
“My roommates and I are going to ask our English teacher over for lunch.”
If you ask someone out, you invite the person to go out for a romantic encounter:
“Bill asked me out, but I turned him down (said no). He’s just not my type.”
When a person comes over, they arrive at your house or apartment:
“Why don’t you come over to my place after class? We can work on the project together.”
To bring something over is to bring an object to the other person’s house or apartment:
“I’ll bring over my DVD collection so that we can watch some movies.”
Have over is the general word for having people visit your house/apartment:
“We’re having about 15 people over for Thanksgiving dinner.”
These phrasal verbs mean to enter a place for a short period of time:
“I just stopped by to say hi – I need to go in about ten minutes.”
Drop in means to visit unexpectedly:
“My sister always drops in while I’m in the middle of doing something important. I wish she’d call me before she came over.”
Drop off is when you take somebody in your car and then leave them in another place:
“I’m going to drop my husband off at the airport. He’s traveling to London.”
Pick up is the opposite of “drop off.” If you pick someone up, you go drive to a place and get someone into your car. Remember that you drop someone off at a place, and you pick someone up from a place.
“My husband returns from London on Thursday – I’ll pick him up from the airport around noon.”
To meet up with someone is to get together at a particular time and place:
“I’m going to meet up with some friends at the bar at 8:30.”
“We’re going to play basketball tomorrow afternoon. Do you want to join us?”
“I’ll have to take a rain check – my boyfriend and I are going to see a concert. Maybe another time!”
“I’ll take a rain check” is a response to a social invitation if you can’t go, but you hope the person asks you again in the future.
Do you know any other phrasal verbs used in socializing?what are they?
These two words can be confusing, but I’ll teach you the difference – and teach you 60 common collocations with example sentences to help you!
EXCEPTION: make the bed = putting blankets, sheets, and pillows in the correct place so that the bed looks nice and not messy.
WORK / STUDY
TAKING CARE OF YOUR BODY
GENERAL GOOD OR BAD ACTIONS
EXCEPTION: Don’t say “make a question.” The correct phrase is “ask a question.”
PLANS & PROGRESS
Let’s begin by answering the question, “Where do you work?” This seems like a simple question, but there are many ways to answer it:
You’re going to learn when to use each preposition.
For example, “I work at Espresso English” or “I work for Nike.”
You can also use “for” if you work directly for a famous person: “I work for Tom Cruise. I’m his public relations manager.
I work in… (a place):
I work in… (a city/country):
I work in… (a department):
I work in… (a general area):
If you want to add more details about your work, you can say “I’m responsible for…”
After “I’m responsible for…” use the -ING form of the verb.
In conversational English, the question “Where do you work?” is commonly phrased as “What do you do?” or “What do you do for a living?”
How do you answer this question if you don’t have a job?
You can say “I’m unemployed” - or, more indirectly, “I’m between jobs at the moment.”
If you work for yourself, you can say “I’m self-employed.” If you have your own company, you can say, “I own a small business,” or more specifically, “I own a restaurant” or “I own a graphic design company.”
When you are officially accepted into a new job at a company, you are hired by the company. For example, “I was hired by an insurance company just two weeks after graduating from college.” When you’re hired, you become an employee of the company. The company becomes your employer. The other employees in the company are your colleagues or coworkers. The person above you who is responsible for your work is your boss or supervisor.
As an employee of the company, you earn a salary - money you receive regularly for your work. Don’t make the mistake of saying “win a salary” or “get a salary” – the correct verb is “earn.” If you’re good at your job, you might get a pay raise (or a raise) – an increase in your salary. You could also get a promotion - an increase in importance and authority. At the end of the year, some companies give their employees a bonus - extra money for work well done.
The opposite of “hire” is fire - when your company forces you to leave your job. For example, “Peter was fired because he never came to work on time.” Usually if someone is fired, it’s because they did something bad. If an employee loses his or her job because of a neutral reason, like the company reducing its size, then we say the employee was laid off. For example, “Donna was laid off when her company started having financial problems.”
If you decide to leave your job, there are three verbs you can use:
“Quit” is informal, “resign” is formal, and “leave” can be formal or informal.
When an old person decides to stop working, the verb for this is retire. In most countries, people retire around age 65.
Let’s listen to an informal telephone conversation, after Ryan gets home from work.
Ryan: Hi Linda, it’s Ryan. How’s it going?
Linda: Pretty good, thanks. How about you?
Ryan: I’m fine. Sure glad it’s Friday. Hey, is Peter there?
Linda: Yeah, hold on, I’ll get him. Peter! Ryan’s on the phone.
Peter: Hey Ryan, what’s up?
Ryan: Not much. Are you up for going fishing this weekend?
Peter: What? There’s a lot of background noise – I can barely hear you.
Ryan: Sorry about that – I’m at the train station. I was wondering if you wanted to go fishing this weekend. I’m heading up to Mountain Lake with some friends early tomorrow morning.
Peter: Uh, hang on a sec, let me just check with my wife to make sure we have no other plans.
Peter: Okay, she’s given me the green light!
Ryan: Sweet! We’ll pick you up at 6 tomorrow morning, is that OK?
Peter: Yup. Do you need directions to my place?
Ryan: Uh, you still living on Willow Street, near the community center?
Peter: Yeah, that’s right. The yellow house, number 30.
Ryan: Gotcha. I know how to get there.
Peter: All right – see you tomorrow, then.
Ryan: Take care.
Telephone English Phrases – Informal Conversation
Let’s learn some of the different phrases used in an informal telephone conversation. In informal phone calls, most people answer the phone by saying “Hello?” and the introduction is also different:
We see two different greetings in this conversation: “How’s it going?” and “What’s up?” These greetings require different answers. You can answer “How’s it going?” (or the similar question “How are you doing?”) with:
And the typical answers to “What’s up?” are:
The phrase “How about you?” is used to ask the same question to the other person. Notice that it is spoken like this: “Howbout you?”
In the formal conversation, Ryan used the phrase “May I speak with…” – but in an informal conversation, you can use these phrases:
If the person is not available, some informal responses are:
This conversation also contains some expressions for asking someone to wait:
The formal equivalent of these phrases would be “One moment please” or “Please hold.”
At one point, Peter can’t hear or understand Ryan. Here are some phrases to use if you’re having difficulty hearing the other person on the phone.
If the bad connection causes the call to fail, you can call the other person back and say this:
“Cut off” is a phrasal verb that means the call failed or disconnected.
Towards the end of the conversation, Ryan uses the phrase “Gotcha” - this is a very informal phrase that means “I understand.” Another option is “Got it.” or “Right.”
Now you know the basic telephone vocabulary. In the next part of the lesson, you’re going to hear some conversations to learn some useful English phrases for talking on the phone.
Formal Telephone Conversation
Helen: Midtown Computer Solutions, Helen speaking. How can I help you?
Ryan: Hello, this is Ryan Bardos. May I speak with Natalie Jones, please?
Helen: One moment please – I’ll put you through.
Helen: Mr. Bardos? I’m sorry, Natalie’s in a meeting at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?
Ryan: Yes, could you ask her to call me back as soon as possible? It’s pretty urgent.
Helen: Of course. Does she have your number?
Ryan: She has my office number, but let me also give you my cell – it’s 472-555-8901.
Helen: Let me read that back to you – 472-555-8901.
Ryan: That’s right.
Helen: And could you spell your last name for me?
Ryan: B as in Boston – A – R – D as in dog – O – S as in September
Helen: Okay, Mr. Bardos. I’ll give her the message.
Ryan: Thanks a lot. Bye.
Now let’s listen to the second part of the conversation, when Natalie calls Ryan back.
Natalie: Hi, Ryan, this is Natalie returning your call.
Ryan: Hi Natalie, thanks for getting back to me. I was calling about the shipment of keyboards for our office – we haven’t gotten them yet.
Natalie: Oh, that’s not good – they were supposed to be delivered three days ago.
Ryan: Exactly, and we have a new group of employees starting on Monday, so we really need those keyboards as soon as possible.
Natalie: Okay, I’ll look into it right away – if necessary, we can send you an emergency overnight shipment.
Ryan: Thanks, Natalie, I appreciate it.
Natalie: No problem, Ryan. I’ll call you back a little later, as soon as I have more information.
Ryan: Sounds good – talk to you soon.
Telephone English Phrases – Formal Conversation
From these conversations, we can learn phrases for beginning a phone call, taking and leaving messages, checking and clarifying information, and finishing a phone call.
BEGINNING A CALL
When Helen answers the phone, she says, “Midtown Computer Solutions, Helen speaking. How can I help you?” This is a common way for a receptionist at a company or organization to answer the phone. Here are a couple alternatives:
To introduce yourself, you can say: “Hello, this is…” and if you want, you can add your company name:
Then, ask to speak to somebody by using the phrases:
You can also add the phrase “I’m calling about…” or “I’m calling to…” in order to give a reason for your call. Use “I’m calling about…” to introduce a topic, and “I’m calling to…” to introduce an action:
To connect or transfer the call, the receptionist says, “One moment please – I’ll put you through.” A few other phrases for transferring a call are:
TAKING / LEAVING MESSAGES
Unfortunately the person Ryan wants to speak to is not available, and the receptionist says “I’m sorry, Natalie’s in a meeting at the moment.” Here are some additional phrases to use when another person can’t answer a telephone call:
Then, there are two common phrases that are used for offering to take a message:
If you don’t want to leave a message, you can say: “No thanks, I’ll call back later.”
There are two polite ways to leave a message. You can make a statement starting with “Please” or a question starting with “Could you…” – usually followed by the verbs ask, tell, or remind and then “him” (if the message is for a man) or “her” (if the message is for a woman).
While taking the message, the receptionist used two phrases for checking and confirming information:
The verb “spell” means to say the letters of the word. Ryan replies:
It’s common to use phrases like “B as in Boston” and “S as in September” with letters that can be frequently confused with others, such as B and D, S and F, or M and N.
FINISHING A CALL
When you want to finish the conversation, you can use “signal phrases” – these are phrases indicating that the conversation is coming to an end:
If you want to promise future contact, you can use one of the phrases from the second conversation:
Then you can finish the conversation with one of these “final phrases”:
Response: “You too. Bye.”
There are different types of phones:
When someone calls you, the phone makes a sound – we say the phone is ringing. If you’re available, you pick up the telephone or answer the telephone, in order to talk to the person.
If there’s nobody to answer the phone, then the caller will have to leave a message on an answering machine or voice mail. Later, you can call back or return the call.
When you want to make a phone call, you start by dialing the number. Let’s imagine that you call your friend, but she’s already on the phone with someone else. You’ll hear a busy signal – a beeping sound that tells you the other person is currently using the phone.
Sometimes, when you call a company, they put you on hold. This is when you wait for your call to be answered – usually while listening to music.
Finally, when you’re finished with the conversation, you hang up.
After verbs ending in T and D sounds
After verbs ending in S, X, K, P, F, SH, and CH sounds
In all other verbs
Have you ever noticed some English words with hyphens between them? For example:
These are called compound adjectives – meaning an adjective that has two or more words.
In this lesson, you’re going to learn some of the most compound adjectives with example sentences.
Don’t use -s at the end of compound adjectives with numbers:
Use a hyphen when the compound adjective comes BEFORE the noun it modifies, but not when it comes AFTER the noun.
This is a world-famous museum.
This museum is world famous.
We walked into a brightly-lit room.
We walked into a room that was brightly lit.
It was quite a thought-provoking book.
The book was quite thought provoking.
Dickinson wrote often of death and immortality (usually related to one’s soul living forever, never dying), but her poetry wasn’t always about such deep (serious) topics. Here’s one of her more inspiring (causing positive thoughts and enthusiasm) poems:
If I Can Stop One Heart From Breaking
If I can stop one heart from breaking,
I shall not live in vain;
If I can ease one life the aching,
Or cool one pain,
Or help one fainting robin
Unto his nest again,
I shall not live in vain.
Dickinson begins by saying that “If I can stop (prevent) one heart from breaking.” To break one’s heart is to become very sad, often because someone has died or left you. (Okay, okay, so this poem talks about death, too, but it gets happier in a minute (soon).)
Dickinson says that if she can stop someone’s heart from breaking, “I shall not live in vain.” Something done in vain is done without any good coming out of it, without being successful. But if she can prevent someone from becoming sad, then her life will not be in vain – her life will have meaning.
She continues with this theme: “If I can ease one life the aching.” To ease is to make something that is painful less painful, to help someone feel less pain. Aching here means basically pain, usually related to losing or being without someone. So if the person speaking in this poem can help ease someone’s pain, then (again) we learn that she “shall not (will not) live in vain.”
Dickinson adds two more images here: “Or cool one pain” and “Or help one fainting robin/Unto his nest again.” To cool one’s pain would be similar to ease it, to make it less painful. A robin is a small bird (see photo). To faint usually means to fall down due to some temporary illness (sickness) or, more specifically, lack of (not having enough) oxygen.
We would not normally think of robins as “fainting,” but apparently it can happen. Anyway, this robin can faint, and Dickinson says that if she can help the poor bird “Unto his nest again,” she will not have lived in vain. A nest is a bird’s home (see photo), so to help one “unto” his nest would be to help the bird back into his nest, so he is safe.
Dickinson is telling us, I think, that in helping other people who need help, we can give our own lives meaning. As we approach (get nearer to) the holiday season, that’s a good thought for all of us to keep in mind (remember).
P.S:This post is taken from www.eslpod.com.
Vocabulary learning is one of the important parts of language learning, however a lot of language learners do not clearly know how they should do it and what they should learn about a new word.I have already talked about the pieces of information which should be learned about a word (in postings90-4,90-5,90-6,90-7 ). In this posting ,I am going to talk about antonyms(words with almost opposite meanings) and synonyms(words with almost same meanings).
Most of the teachers while teaching new words bombard the students with synonyms or antonyms of new words.Doing this, they try to improve vocabulary knowledge of students.Teachers believe that if they give synonyms and antonyms of new words they will be automatically learned beside new words.Likewise,students are interested in learning synonyms and antonyms of new words and usually insist teachers to give them antonyms ans synonyms of new words .Is this a right approach?Do learning antonyms and synonyms help?What does research say?
on vocabulary learning shows that giving synonyms and antonyms while
teaching new words makes the job more difficult for students, specially
giving synonyms and antonyms which themselves are not familiar.It seems
that learning antonyms and synonyms besides new words overloads
students' memory.Therefore it is not a good idea to make the already
difficult process of vocabulary learning more difficult by giving more
new words(synonyms and antonyms).
In sum,learning synonyms and antonyms of new words do not seem very helpful.Instead, teachers and students alike should focus on learning collocations(for more information please go to posting 90-76) of new words which can improve accuracy and fluency of students much better.
What do you think?Do you think learning synonyms an antonyms is helpful?
One of the most interesting and beautiful poems in Farsi is written by late Shahryar.I hope you enjoy reading it.
ای وای مادرم
آهسته باز از بغل پله ها گذشت
در فكر آش و سبزی بیمار خویش بود
اما گرفته دور و برش هاله ای سیاه
او مرده است و باز پرستار حال ماست
در زندگی ما همه جا وول می خورد
هر كنج خانه صحنه ای از داستان اوست
در ختم خویش هم به سر كار خویش بود
هر روز می گذشت از این زیر پله ها
آهسته تا به هم نزند خواب ناز من
امروز هم گذشت
در باز و بسته شد
با پشت خم از این بغل كوچه می رود
چادر نماز فلفلی انداخته به سر
كفش چروك خورده و جوراب وصله دار
او فكر بچه هاست
هرجا شده هویج هم امروز می خرد
بیچاره پیرزن ، همه برف است كوچه ها
او از میان كلفت و نوكر ز شهر خویش
آمد به جستجوی من و سرنوشت من
آمد چهار طفل دگر هم بزرگ كرد
آمد كه پیت نفت گرفته به زیر بال
هر شب در آید از در یك خانه فقیر
روشن كند چراغ یكی عشق نیمه جان
او را گذشته ای است ، سزاوار احترام :
تبریز ما ! به دور نمای قدیم شهر
در ( باغ بیشه ) خانه مردی است باخدا
هر صحن و هر سراچه یكی دادگستری است
اینجا به داد ناله مظلوم می رسند
اینجا كفیل خرج موكل بود وكیل
مزد و درآمدش همه صرف رفاه خلق
در باز و سفره پهن
بر سفره اش چه گرسنه ها سیر می شوند
یك زن مدیر گردش این چرخ و دستگاه
او مادر من است
انصاف می دهم كه پدر رادمرد بود
با آنهمه درآمد سرشارش از حلال
روزی كه مرد ، روزی یكسال خود نداشت
اما قطارهای پر از زاد آخرت
وز پی هنوز قافله های دعای خیر
این مادر از چنان پدری یادگار بود
تنها نه مادر من و درماندگان خیل
او یك چراغ روشن ایل و قبیله بود
خاموش شد دریغ
نه ، او نمرده ، میشنوم من صدای او
با بچه ها هنوز سر و كله می زند
ناهید ، لال شو
بیژن ، برو كنار
كفگیر بی صدا
دارد برای ناخوش خود آش می پزد
او مرد و در كنار پدر زیر خاك رفت
اقوامش آمدند پی سر سلامتی
یك ختم هم گرفته شد و پر بدك نبود
بسیار تسلیت كه به ما عرضه داشتند
لطف شما زیاد
اما ندای قلب به گوشم همیشه گفت :
این حرفها برای تو مادر نمی شود .
پس این كه بود ؟
دیشب لحاف رد شده بر روی من كشید
لیوان آب از بغل من كنار زد ،
در نصفه های شب .
یك خواب سهمناك و پریدم به حال تب
نزدیك های صبح
او زیر پای من اینجا نشسته بود
آهسته با خدا ،
راز و نیاز داشت
نه ، او نمرده است .
نه او نمرده است كه من زنده ام هنوز
او زنده است در غم و شعر و خیال من
میراث شاعرانه من هرچه هست از اوست
كانون مهر و ماه مگر می شود خموش
آن شیرزن بمیرد ؟ او شهریار زاد
هرگز نمیرد آنكه دلش زنده شد به عشق
او با ترانه های محلی كه می سرود
با قصه های دلكش و زیبا كه یاد داشت
از عهد گاهواره كه بندش كشید و بست
اعصاب من بساز و نوا كوك كرده بود
او شعر و نغمه در دل و جانم بخنده كاشت
وانگه به اشك های خود آن كشته آب داد
لرزید و برق زد به من آن اهتزاز روح
وز اهتزاز روح گرفتم هوای ناز
تا ساختم برای خود از عشق عالمی
او پنج سال كرد پرستاری مریض
در اشك و خون نشست و پسر را نجات داد
اما پسر چه كرد برای تو ؟ هیچ ، هیچ
تنها مریض خانه ، به امید دیگران
یك روز هم خبر : كه بیا او تمام كرد .
در راه قم به هرچه گذشتم عبوس بود
پیچید كوه و فحش به من داد و دور شد
صحرا همه خطوط كج و كوله و سیاه
طومار سرنوشت و خبرهای سهمگین
دریاچه هم به حال من از دور می گریست
تنها طواف دور ضریح و یكی نماز
یك اشك هم به سوره یاسین من چكید
مادر به خاك رفت .
آنشب پدر به خواب من آمد ، صداش كرد
او هم جواب داد
یك دود هم گرفت به دور چراغ ماه
معلوم شد كه مادره از دست رفتنی است
اما پدر به غرفه باغی نشسته بود
شاید كه جان او به جهان بلند برد
آنجا كه زندگی ، ستم و درد و رنج نیست
این هم پسر ، كه بدرقه اش می كند به گور
یك قطره اشك ، مزد همه زخم های او
اما خلاص می شود از سرنوشت من
مادر بخواب ، خوش
منزل مباركت .
آینده بود و قصه بی مادری من
ناگاه ضجه ای كه بهم زد سكوت مرگ
من می دویدم از وسط قبرها برون
او بود و سر به ناله برآورده از مغاك
خود را به ضعف از پی من باز می كشید
دیوانه و رمیده ، دویدم به ایستگاه
خود را بهم فشرده خزیدم میان جمع
ترسان ز پشت شیشه در آخرین نگاه
باز آن سفیدپوش و همان كوشش و تلاش
چشمان نیمه باز :
از من جدا مشو
می آمدیم و كله من گیج و منگ بود
انگار جیوه در دل من آب می كنند
پیچیده صحنه های زمین و زمان بهم
خاموش و خوفناك همه می گریختند
می گشت آسمان كه بكوبد به مغز من
دنیا به پیش چشم گنهكار من سیاه
وز هر شكاف و رخنه ماشین غریو باد
یك ناله ضعیف هم از پی دوان دوان
می آمد و به مغز من آهسته می خلید :
تنها شدی پسر .
باز آمدم به خانه چه حالی ! نگفتنی
دیدم نشسته مثل همیشه كنار حوض
پیراهن پلید مرا باز شسته بود
انگار خنده كرد ولی دلشكسته بود :
بردی مرا بخاك كردی و آمدی ؟
تنها نمی گذارمت ای بینوا پسر
می خواستم به خنده درآیم ز اشتباه
اما خیال بود
ای وای مادرم
what do you think?
Talking about different stages(age group) of a person's life can sometimes be confusing .Like any other languages in English distinct(specific) words are used to talk about stages of a person's life in terms of age:
1 month -3 months old=infant
3months -18 months= baby
18months -3 years old= toddler
3years old- 12 years old= child
13 years old - 19 years old =teenager
18 years old and more than 18=adult
62 years old and above 62=senior citizen
or creating an opportunity to speak in English is very important for language learning because it
helps learners to use their learned knowledge in real life situations ,in
other words learners can use the language when they speak with somebody.Another
benefit of speaking is that learners understand what they can not talk about
and express in English,therefore they can work on it to improve their language
in that area.However there are some problems that should be taken care of
before starting speaking.
First,a good partner should be found-somebody who is willing and has the ability to help.Then, interesting topics should be chosen to discuss.In this posting some topics are listed which can be talked about in discussions.
Recreation and leisure activities – favorite activities, sports and games, climate and seasons, seasonal activities, holiday activities, parties, abilities, cultural and artistic interests.
· Family, friends, and daily activities – family and relatives, physical states or conditions, emotional states, daily activities, holiday and vacation activities, pets.
· Plans, obligations, and careers – future plans, general future activities, obligations, hopes and desires, careers and professions, place of work, work activities, salaries and money.
· Residence – place of residence, rooms of a house, furniture, activities at home, household items, amenities (desirable or useful features).
· Narrating past experiences – immediate past events, yesterday’s activities, weekend activities, holidays and parties, trips and vacations, other experiences.
· Health, illnesses, and emergencies – body parts, physical states or conditions, mental states and moods, health maintenance, health professions, medicine and diseases.
· Eating – foods, drinks.
· Travel and transportation – geography, modes (kinds) of transportation, vacations, experiences on trips, languages, making reservations.
· Shopping and buying – money and prices, fashions, gifts, products.
· Youth – childhood experiences, primary school experiences, teen years experiences, adult expectations and activities.
· Values – family, friendship, love, marriage, gender roles and stereotypes, goals, religious beliefs.
· Issues and current events – environmental problems, economic issues, education, employment and careers, ethical issues, politics, crime sports, social events, cultural events, minority groups, science and health, technology.
You can also use these topics to ask questions about specific situations related to them. For example, if you’re talking about eating, you could ask questions about ordering a meal in a restaurant, shopping in a supermarket, or preparing food from recipes.
What do you think?what else can be talked about in conversations?
P.S:This posting is an extract from an article which is available on www.successfulenglish.com.
Reading (and listening) is the key to language development. More specifically, listening to or reading something which is easy to understand .What we get from reading and listening is the key(very important) to language development. Without it very little happens.
what you read and how you read determine most of the language benefits you receive from reading. Here are some ideas that can help you make better decisions and make your reading as effective as possible.
Effective reading is effortless reading
The best reading for language
development is effortless – “easy reading that seems to be completely
comprehensible(understandable) without struggle(effort).” Many students believe
they need to challenge themselves(read difficult passages), to read above their
comfort level to improve. The opposite is true. One researcher, for example,
found that your vocabulary grows faster if you know at least 95% of the words
in the text you are reading.
Effective reading involves you in the text, not the language
acquire, or absorb, more language when you get so involved in what you’re
reading that you forget that it’s in another language or contains language you
haven’t acquired yet. To do this, your reading must be effortless and
interesting, so you can focus all your attention on the text and ignore
the language.In other words,when you are reading something you should pay much
attention to the story and its content ,not the grammar points or vocabulary in
the passage.Doing so ,research shows can improve your grammar and vocabulary
after a while.
Worrying about your progress makes reading less effective
Language acquisition takes place “behind the scenes.” As a result, you won’t usually be aware of the progress you’re making until sometime later, when a word you need suddenly “appears” or when someone comments about your improvement.
Many students worry too much about progress. They create stress for themselves by worrying about remembering and forgetting what they’ve read. Some manage to convince themselves that they’re not improving(they think they are not making enough progress).
you do what you need to do , your brain will automatically and quietly do what
it does well – acquire more language. And you will make progress.
Checking your comprehension makes reading less effective
When you stop reading to check your comprehension, you interfere with the language acquisition process and make it more difficult. This happens, for example, when you stop to look up a word or add it to a vocabulary list for later study.
Stopping to check a word or write it down takes your attention away from what you’re reading. It requires you to remember what you’re reading while you stop to do something else. The result? You’ll be focused on the language, you’ll be less involved in the reading . You’ll enjoy the reading less and, most importantly, significantly reduce its benefits. The more you stay involved in the text without interruption, the more language you will acquire.
Language learning happens little by little and it happens as the result of another activity – reading. Your job, as an English learner, is to read interesting, effortless English. To enjoy what you’re reading. And to get deeply involved in it. This is the greatest contribution you can make toward your ultimate goal – better English.
A final note: it works for listening, too
You should also apply these ideas to the listening you do.
P.S:This posting is a simplified version of an scholarly article on www.successfulenglish.com.
Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging(difficult) parts of language learning process,however it is essential(very important). Research shows that vocabulary knowledge is very important in reading comprehension ,listening comprehension ,speaking and writing.In other words,Learners with bigger vocabulary size can do much better in above-mentioned activities.Therefore, in this post ,I am going to talk about word family and its role(importance) in expanding(increasing)a learners vocabulary knowledge.
Very often you should look up(try to find) a new word in a dictionary to understand its meaning, and most of the time you may not have a look at the words which are related to the target word(the word you are looking up in the dictionary). If so,you are missing great opportunities to improve your vocabulary knowledge.The fact of the matter is that the neighboring (words above or under the target word)words are usually related to the target word and can be learned in addition to the target word ,too.Imagine you have to look up “careless” in an English-English dictionary.There are words such as”care for”,”carefree”,”careful”,"caregiver”,”carelessly”,and”carelessness” beside the target word”careless” which can be learned, too.
In summary,learning one word with its family can increase your vocabulary size very fast.
What do you think?Do you study the whole word family when looking up a word?
*من به مدرسه ميرفتم تا درس بخوانم*
*تو به مدرسه ميرفتي به تو گفته بودند بايد دکتر شوي*
*او هم به مدرسه ميرفت اما نمي دانست چرا*
*من پول تو جيبي ام را هفتگي از پدرم ميگرفتم*
*تو پول تو جيبي نمي گرفتي هميشه پول در خانه ي شما دم دست بود*
*او هر روز بعد از مدزسه کنار خيابان آدامس ميفروخت*
*معلم گفته بود انشا بنويسيد*
*موضوع اين بود علم بهتر است يا ثروت*
*من نوشته بودم علم بهتر است*
*مادرم مي گفت با علم مي توان به ثروت رسيد*
*تو نوشته بودي علم بهتر است*
*شايد پدرت گفته بود تو از ثروت بي نيازي*
*او اما انشا ننوشته بود برگه ي او سفيد بود*
*خودکارش روز قبل تمام شده بود*
*معلم آن روز او را تنبيه کرد*
*بقيه بچه ها به او خنديدند*
*آن روز او براي تمام نداشته هايش گريه کرد*
*هيچ کس نفهميد که او چقدر احساس حقارت کرد*
*خوب معلم نمي دانست او پول خريد يک خودکار را نداشته*
*شايد معلم هم نمي دانست ثروت وعلم گاهي به هم گره مي خورند*
*گاهي نمي شود بي ثروت از علم چيزي نوشت*
*من در خانه اي بزرگ مي شدم که بهار توي حياطش بوي پيچ امين الدوله مي آمد*
*تو در خانه اي بزرگ مي شدي که شب ها در آن بوي دسته گل هايي مي پيچيد که پدرت
براي مادرت مي خريد*
*او اما در خانه اي بزرگ مي شد که در و ديوارش بوي سيگار و ترياکي را مي داد
که پدرش مي کشيد*
*سال هاي آخر دبيرستان بود*
*بايد آماده مي شديم براي ساختن آينده*
*من بايد بيشتر درس مي خواندم دنبال کلاس هاي تقويتي بودم*
*تو تحصيل در دانشگا هاي خارج از کشور برايت آينده ي بهتري را رقم مي زد*
*او اما نه انگيزه داشت نه پول درس را رها کرد دنبال کار مي گشت*
*روزنا مه چاپ شده بود*
*هر کس دنبال چيزي در روزنامه مي گشت*
*من رفتم روزنامه بخرم که اسمم را در صفحه ي قبولي هاي کنکور جستجو کنم*
*تو رفتي روزنامه بخري تا دنبال آگهي اعزام دانشجو به خارج از کشور بگردي*
*او اما نامش در روزنامه بود روز قبل در يک نزاع خياباني کسي را کشته بود*
*من آن روز خوشحال تر از آن بودم که بخواهم به اين فکر کنم که کسي کسي را کشته
*تو آن روز هم مثل هميشه بعد از ديدن عکس هاي روزنامه آن را به به کناري
*او اما آنجا بود در بين صفحات روزنامه*
*براي اولين بار بود در زندگي اش که اين همه به او توجه شده بود** !!!!*
*چند سال گذشت*
*وقت گرفتن نتايج بود*
*من منتظر گرفتن مدارک دانشگاهي ام بودم*
*تو مي خواستي با مدرک پزشکي ات برگردي همان آرزوي ديرينه ي پدرت*
*او اما هر روز منتظر شنيدن صدور حکم اعدامش بود*
*وقت قضاوت بود*
*جامعه ي ما هميشه قضاوت مي کند*
*من خوشحال بودم که که مرا تحسين مي کنند*
*تو به خود مي باليدي که جامعه ات به تو افتخار مي کند*
*او شرمسار بود که سرزنش و نفرينش مي کنند*
*زندگي ادامه دارد*
*هيچ وقت پايان نمي گيرد*
*من موفقم من ميگويم نتيجه ي تلاش خودم است**!!!*
*تو خيلي موفقي تو ميگويي نتيجه ي پشت کار خودت است**!!!*
*او اما زير مشتي خاک است مردم گفتند مقصر خودش است** !!!!*
*من , تو , او*
*هيچگاه در کنار هم نبوديم*
*هيچگاه يکديگر را نشناختيم*
*اما من و تو اگر به جاي او بوديم*
*آخر داستان چگونه بود ؟؟؟*
*هر روز از كنار مردمانی می گذريم كه يا من اند يا تو و يا او*
*و به راستی نه موفقيت های من به تمامی از آن من است و نه تقصيرهای او همگي از
What do you think?
Call of Islam Radio station which is located in Holy city of Qom produces and broadcasts interesting religious shows(programs)which can help us not only learn more about our religion but also talk about religious topics much more easily. Different kinds of programs with various topics such as:Family in Islam,Hadis,The Qur'an,Youth,etc are aired(broadcasted) .
Listening to the shows by this station can help us to learn the much-needed vocabulary to talk about religious topics.In other words,by listening to downloadable podcast from this radio station website, you can learn how to talk about a topic in English.
The website address is the following:
What do you think?How did you like it?
Most of the time when speaking or writing we use some fixed sentences or phrases which we have heard or read before.Using these sentences or phrases can make us to speak faster and easier.In this posting I am going to talk about these fixed expressions(prefabricated phrases) and explain how they can aid us to speak faster.
As you know,in speaking there is not much time for thinking and preparation because the idea(message)should be expressed as quickly as possible.Besides,in conversations there are a lot of elements(points)such as grammar,choice of right word,context that should be taken care of(paid attention to) ,therefore to speak fast and more fluently memory load should be decreased. Memorizing prefabricated phrases or expressions can help to lessen(reduce,decrease) the memory load,because you already have the needed material in your mind and you do not need to think about the suitable word or grammar,etc to use .Following are some example prefabricated phrases and expressions which you may already know:
You are welcome.
Do not mention it.
To cut the long story short....
To be honest with you....
To tell you the truth....
Phrases such as these can make the conversations a lot easier,because to use them you do not think very much and they are almost used automatically.
It is a good idea to write useful expressions and phrases in your vocabulary notebook and review them from time to time(sometimes,occasionally). Doing this after a while(short time)you can master a lot of useful expressions.
In short,memorizing prefabricated phrases which are combination of some words and using them at right time and place can make the conversations much faster and easier because to use them you do not think very much.
What do you thin?Do you pay attention to prefabricated phrases?